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Chardonnay Wine

Learn about Chardonnay — taste profile, popular regions and more ...

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What Is Chardonnay?

Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used to make both still white wine and sparkling wine. As one of the most popular and versatile white wine grapes, Chardonnay offers a wide range of flavors and styles depending on where it is grown and how it is made. While practically every country in the wine producing world grows it, and is a very popular choice among consumers, Chardonnay from its Burgundian homeland produces some of the most remarkable and longest-lived examples of Chardonnay wine. As far as cellar potential, white Burgundy rivals the world’s other age-worthy whites like Riesling or botrytized Semillon. California is Chardonnay’s second most important home, where both oaky, buttery Chardonnay styles and leaner, European-inspired wines enjoy great popularity. Oregon, Australia and South America are also significant producers of Chardonnay.

How Is Chardonnay Made?

As with most white wines, Chardonnay juice is pressed off the grape skins as soon as possible after harvest, thereby minimizing extraction of color and tannins. Fermentation follows immediately, and this may occur in stainless steel tanks or in oak barrels. Chardonnay is typically fermented to dryness. Once fermentation is complete, the wine may be aged in barrels for added complexity. Other winemaking techniques often employed are malolactic fermentation, which imparts a creamy, buttery sensation, and sur lie aging, which tends to soften the mouthfeel and add a subtle biscuit or nutty element.

Chardonnay Origin

Chardonnay was born as a natural cross between the white grape Gouais Blanc and the red grape Pinot Noir. This happy event is thought to have occurred early in the Middle Ages in the French region of Burgundy, where the grape is widely considered to reach its highest, and most age-worthy, expression. But for centuries it was only there and in Champagne where the grape stood out. Not until the late 1970s did California Chardonnay start to inspire interest, and that trend exploded in the 1980s and ‘90s. Soon other winemakers around the world got the memo–Chardonnay is easy to grow, flexible in both cool and warm climates, and boasts a range of easy-to-appreciate flavors. Production increased in places as varied as Oregon and Washington, South America, Australia and South Africa. Old World interest picked up as well, in Italy, Spain and elsewhere.

Tasting Notes for Chardonnay

Chardonnay grown in cooler regions exhibits racy, crisp flavors like lemon, lime, and green apple, along with flinty or chalky mineral notes. Warmer locations coax out richer flavors like melon, peach and pineapple. Oak can add notes of vanilla, coconut, and spice, while malolactic fermentation leads to a creamy, buttery texture. Chardonnay is typically a dry wine, although some winemakers allow a touch of residual sugar.

Oaked vs. Unoaked Chardonnay

While the ‘80s and ‘90s surge in popularity was fueled by well-oaked versions, today a number of fine un-oaked examples are made. Typically fermented and aged in stainless steel before bottling, these are bright, crisp, and fresh, showcasing Chardonnay’s pure fruit character and coming across lighter in body.

Perfect Food Pairings for Chardonnay

Chardonnay is as versatile at the table as it is in the vineyard. Keep stylistic differences in mind when pairing with food.

  • Seafood: Enjoying lobster, crab or shrimp scampi? Choose a rich, buttery Chardonnay. With a briny or delicate dish, like oysters or cod, go with Chablis or a similar version.
  • Poultry: Chardonnay is great with chicken and turkey, and you’ll want a richer style if your dish includes a creamy sauce.
  • Cheese: Oaky, buttery Chardonnay is your best bet with bolder cheeses like cheddars and blues. Brighter, tangier cheeses call for a lighter, crisper style.
  • Things to avoid: Chardonnay is not a great match with foods that are too spicy, bitter or acidic.

How to Serve Chardonnay

Temperature is key. A wine served too warm will seem out of balance, with the alcohol too “hot.” If too cold, the aromas and flavors are muted. Fuller bodied styles are best at 55°F, while leaner versions can be enjoyed at 50°F. A half hour to an hour in the refrigerator will do the trick. As for glassware, a classic white wine glass with a thin rim is perfect. The bowl should be moderately large and should taper towards the top.

Chardonnay Facts

  • Chardonnay is the most widely planted white variety in the world.
  • Chardonnays from Burgundy’s Cote de Beaune are the most coveted in the world.
  • It is one of the three most important grapes in the production of Champagne.
  • The source of almost 80% of American Chardonnay is the so-called Wente Clone, obtained by California’s Wente Family from Burgundy in 1912.

Nutrition Facts

Chardonnay is usually a dry wine, which means there is little to no residual sugar. Thus, there are minimal carbohydrates, and there is no protein or fat. The caloric content comes from alcohol; a standard 5 ounce pour of Chardonnay has about 120 calories.

Sommelier Secrets for Chardonnay

Since the 1980s, big, oaky, buttery Chardonnays from California have enjoyed explosive popularity. More recently, the pendulum has swung in the opposite direction, towards a clean, crisp style that rarely utilizes new oak. The Burgundian subregion of Chablis, while typically using older oak barrels, produces a similar bright and acid-driven style. Anyone who doesn't like oaky Chardonnay wine would likely enjoy this lighter style.

Chardonnay is popular with winemakers because it is easy both to grow and manipulate in the winery, with techniques like barrel fermentation, malolactic fermentation and sur lie aging. It remains popular with consumers because it offers friendly, appealing flavors and textures that make it versatile both with food and on its own.

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  • Francis Ford Coppola Chardonnay 93rd Awards Edition 2019  Front Label
    Francis Ford Coppola Chardonnay 93rd Awards Edition 2019
    Chardonnay from Russian River, Sonoma County, California
      4.1 13 Ratings
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    • Rombauer Chardonnay 2020  Front Label
      Rombauer Chardonnay 2020
      Chardonnay from Carneros, California
      • WW92
      4.5 174 Ratings
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    • Kendall-Jackson Vintner's Reserve Chardonnay 2020  Front Label
      Kendall-Jackson Vintner's Reserve Chardonnay 2020
      Chardonnay from California
      • WE91
      4.0 65 Ratings
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      17
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    • Louis Latour Puligny-Montrachet Sous le Puits Premier Cru 2018  Front Label
      Louis Latour Puligny-Montrachet Sous le Puits Premier Cru 2018
      Chardonnay from Puligny-Montrachet, Cote de Beaune, Cote d'Or, Burgundy, France
      • JS93
      • RP91
      • BH91
      5.0 10 Ratings
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    • Novellum Chardonnay 2020  Front Label
      Novellum Chardonnay 2020
      Chardonnay from Vin de France, France
      • JD94
      4.1 105 Ratings
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    • MacRostie Sonoma Coast Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
      MacRostie Sonoma Coast Chardonnay 2019
      Chardonnay from Sonoma Coast, Sonoma County, California
      • TP94
      • W&S92
      • WE91
      • WW90
      • JD90
      3.8 115 Ratings
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      25
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    • Schug Sonoma Coast Chardonnay 2020  Front Label
      Schug Sonoma Coast Chardonnay 2020
      Chardonnay from Sonoma Coast, Sonoma County, California
      • TP94
      • WW90
      • JS90
      3.9 71 Ratings
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    • Chateau Montelena Napa Valley Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
      Chateau Montelena Napa Valley Chardonnay 2019
      Chardonnay from Napa Valley, California
        3.5 9 Ratings
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      • De Wetshof Bon Vallon Chardonnay 2021  Front Label
        De Wetshof Bon Vallon Chardonnay 2021
        Chardonnay from Robertson, South Africa
        • JS90
        0.0 0 Ratings
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      • Raeburn Chardonnay 2020  Front Label
        Raeburn Chardonnay 2020
        Chardonnay from Russian River, Sonoma County, California
        • WW91
        4.0 53 Ratings
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      • El Enemigo  Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
        El Enemigo Chardonnay 2019
        Chardonnay from Mendoza, Argentina
        • JS96
        • RP93
        • WS90
        • WE90
        4.3 47 Ratings
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        Currently Unavailable $24.99
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        28
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      • Roserock by Drouhin Oregon Eola-Amity Hills Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
        Roserock by Drouhin Oregon Eola-Amity Hills Chardonnay 2019
        Chardonnay from Eola-Amity Hills, Willamette Valley, Oregon
        • RP99
        • WE95
        • JS94
        4.1 5 Ratings
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        Currently Unavailable $37.99
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        37 99
        37 99
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      • Louis Jadot Macon-Villages 2020  Front Label
        Louis Jadot Macon-Villages 2020
        Chardonnay from Macon Villages, Maconnais, Burgundy, France
        • TP91
        3.6 84 Ratings
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      • Bouchard Pere & Fils Montrachet Grand Cru 2018  Front Label
        Bouchard Pere & Fils Montrachet Grand Cru 2018
        Chardonnay from Puligny-Montrachet, Cote de Beaune, Cote d'Or, Burgundy, France
        • JM98
        • BH95
        • D95
        • RP95
        0.0 0 Ratings
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      • Sonoma-Cutrer Sonoma Coast Chardonnay 2020  Front Label
        Sonoma-Cutrer Sonoma Coast Chardonnay 2020
        Chardonnay from Sonoma Coast, Sonoma County, California
          0.0 0 Ratings
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          27 99
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        • Ramey Russian River Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
          Ramey Russian River Chardonnay 2019
          Chardonnay from Russian River, Sonoma County, California
          • WE95
          • WS91
          4.1 14 Ratings
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          Currently Unavailable $41.99
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          41 99
          41 99
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        • The Calling Dutton Ranch Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
          The Calling Dutton Ranch Chardonnay 2019
          Chardonnay from Russian River, Sonoma County, California
          • WE92
          4.1 9 Ratings
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          35 99
          35 99
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        • William Fevre Chablis Vaudesir Grand Cru 2019  Front Label
          William Fevre Chablis Vaudesir Grand Cru 2019
          Chardonnay from Chablis, Burgundy, France
          • JM96
          • RP95
          • JS95
          • BH93
          0.0 0 Ratings
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          Currently Unavailable $149.99
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          149 99
          149 99
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        • Trefethen Estate Chardonnay 2020  Front Label
          Trefethen Estate Chardonnay 2020
          Chardonnay from Oak Knoll District, Napa Valley, California
            4.0 5 Ratings
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            Currently Unavailable $42.99
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          • Landmark Overlook Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
            Landmark Overlook Chardonnay 2019
            Chardonnay from Sonoma County, California
              3.8 38 Ratings
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            • William Fevre Chablis Champs Royaux 2019  Front Label
              William Fevre Chablis Champs Royaux 2019
              Chardonnay from Chablis, Burgundy, France
              • WE92
              4.0 50 Ratings
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              35
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            • Joseph Drouhin Pouilly-Fuisse 2020  Front Label
              Joseph Drouhin Pouilly-Fuisse 2020
              Chardonnay from Pouilly-Fuisse, Maconnais, Burgundy, France
                0.0 0 Ratings
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                35 99
                35 99
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              • Keenan Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
                Keenan Chardonnay 2019
                Chardonnay from Spring Mountain District, Napa Valley, California
                • JS92
                • WW91
                • RP90
                0.0 0 Ratings
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                Currently Unavailable $45.99
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                45 99
                45 99
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              • Hanzell Sebella Chardonnay 2019  Front Label
                Hanzell Sebella Chardonnay 2019
                Chardonnay from Sonoma County, California
                • JS94
                • WE93
                0.0 0 Ratings
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                35 99
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              • Chateau Fuisse Pouilly-Fuisse Tete de Cuvee 2019  Front Label
                Chateau Fuisse Pouilly-Fuisse Tete de Cuvee 2019
                Chardonnay from Pouilly-Fuisse, Maconnais, Burgundy, France
                • WS92
                • BH92
                0.0 0 Ratings
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                Currently Unavailable $55.99
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                55 99
                55 99
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